Here we provide a range of information collected from Government, academic and other research sources to assist people who are interested in learning more about water and its impact on health and the environment – and to encourage further inquiry into this fascinating subject.

Often, when a person is feeling under the weather, people commonly suggest, “It must be something in the water.” Many maladies are caused by waterborne contaminants or pathogens.

Today, the World Health Organisation predicts worldwide shortages of potable water within the next ten years. Much of the world’s drinking water is contaminated by agricultural, industrial, pharmaceutical and domestic pollution. Many ground water sources harbour highly toxic natural contaminants. Consumption of contaminanted water over time can result in cancers, bone problems, nervous system damage, and other more subtle toxic health effects.

“Safe drinking water” is a term which is relative to the kind of water that is actually available. For example, many areas in India contain high levels of naturally-occurring calcium fluoride which results in early onset of skeletal fluorosis. Because of the expense of defluoridation plants, the Indian Government has adopted simple, cheap solutions which substantially reduce the fluoride content. The defluoridated water is far “safer” but still poses problems arising from the use of alum treatment which can only be addressed when the country’s economic status improves.

NOTE: All “official standards” for contaminant levels in water are set to achieve minimal risk to health, taking into account the best cost and technology available at the time. These standards are not “written in stone.” With growing knowledge and improvement in technology, “official standards” become more stringent in order to further minimise risks to human health. Unfortunately, at the present time there is a lack of international regulatory uniformity of standards.

Originally, water treatment was introduced to prevent diseases such as typhoid fever, cholera, dyphtheria, etc. Today, water treatment generally includes the removal of harmful toxic substances such as natural fluorides, arsenic and aluminium and bacteria which are immune to chlorination, as well as man-made pollutants.

In order to provide safe drinking water, utility companies use a variety of chemicals. Some of these are, of themselves, harmful to health. However, without water treatment, the risks of transmission of communicable diseases via drinking water would be much greater.

The NPWA’s position, which it has maintained since 1960, is that drinking water should be as safe for consumption as is possible, with minimal chemical treatment. NO chemicals intended to medicate or treat populations should ever be added to drinking water.

NOTE: The National Pure Water Association believes that many official contaminant regulations cited in the following references should be more stringent. However, NPWA presents these sources as the best information currently available.

Water Splash

General Water Information Links

H20 – The Mystery, Art, and Science of Water

Water Wars – Mideast

Ralph Nader – Public Citizen Water Site

Global Water Shortage Looms In New Century

USEPA Water Contaminants list

Pesticides in Drinking Water

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) as Environmental Pollutants

Waterborne Diseases

Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis

E. coli

Risk of specific birth defects in relation to chlorination and the amount of natural organic matter in the water supply.

Does chloroform exposure while showering pose a serious public health concern?

Chloroform: exposure estimation, hazard characterization, and exposure-response analysis.

Comparison of trihalomethanes in tap water and blood

Cancer risk associated with household exposure to chloroform

USEPA Office of Water Site

Drinking Water Glossary: A Dictionary of Technical and Legal Terms Related to Drinking Water

Water Treatment Chemicals

Note: In most countries, complete analyses of tap water can be obtained on request from individual water suppliers.

Hard Water Links

Water Softening

What is Magnetic Water Treatment? Does it work on Hard water?

Bottled Water

World Health Organisation

Natural Resources Defense Council on Bottled Drinking Water

NPWA suggests that consumers request a complete certified analysis, preferably done by an independent testing laboratory, of bottled water from the manufacturer before purchasing.

Water Filtration

Activated Carbon Filtration

Reverse Osmosis



Deionization by Ion Exchange

Capacitive Deionization of Water

Find the right water filter for your needs

Water out of thin air?

Extracting drinking water from the air

Water and the Law

International Water Law Project

California Toxic Tort Cases against Utilities – Legal Opinion

Cross Review – European Union Directives AND the UK Poisons Act. . ESSENTIAL READING

New Books

Water Pollution and Water Quality Law

Capacitive Deionisation of Water


Reticle carbon and advances in capacitive deionization. Carl C. Nesbitt; ReticleInc., 95 Main St., Suite 10, Los Altos, CA 94022, Fax: 650-948-8850

With the recent advancements in the manufacture of activated carbon electrode material, Reticle Inc. has developed and patented a novel carbon electrode material that has created new opportunities in the field of capacitive deionization (CDI). The material has combined qualities of large surface areas (>1500 m2/g) with low electrical resistivities and can be tailored during the manufacturing process to give a wide range of properties. This material has helped to propel CDI technology into a more efficient and less expensive water treatment process and has generated new process options in many other areas. To date, desalination and deionization experiments have been conducted which show the material’s unique ability to remove ionized species from water at a very low cost. The energy consumption of the process has been demonstrated to be 0.36 Whr/L. This compares favorably to the current processes of reverse osmosis (9 Whr/L) and distillation (53 Whr/L). A broad range of novel uses for the material have also been explored including the recovery of metals from dilute solutions and the removal of trace elements from waste water. These results will also be presented along with background information on CDI and the results of desalination and deionization experiments showing the dramatic improvement with Reticle carbon are part of the presentation and discussion.

There have been many problems with the original carbon aerogel when used in a real life scenario. However, the concept is considered to be viable and should be developed further.

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